The Rise and Fall of Fascism in Italy

It’s final collapse was brought about by Allied military victories plus the open rebellion of the people. By Dr. Mario EinaudiLate Professor of GovernmentCornell University Introduction From his birth in 1883 to the day of his death in 1945 Benito Mussolini was many things to many men. Son of a blacksmith of radical persuasion, Mussolini[…]

Shirt Movements in Interwar Europe: A Totalitarian Fashion

Shirt movements embodied the idea of a homogeneous community, based on a racial social or cultural identity. Abstract The article deals with a typical phenomenon of the interwar period: the proliferation of socio-political movements expressing their “mood” and identity via a paramilitary uniform mainly composed of a coloured shirt. The analysis of 34 European shirt[…]

Why the Axis Powers Were Called the Axis Powers

Italian dictator Benito Mussolini declared an axis between Berlin and Rome, coining a term that would be used by both sides in WWII. By Jason Daley In 1936, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini gave a speech in Milan celebrating a new treaty of friendship with Germany and a political realignment of Italy. “This Berlin-Rome protocol is[…]

A History and Description of Fascism

Fascists promote a type of national unity that is usually based on (but not limited to) ethnic, cultural, national, racial, and/or religious attributes. Introduction Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence and seek to achieve a millenarian national[…]

The Sicilian Mafia during the Mussolini Regime

In June 1924, Mussolini instructed Cesare Mori to eradicate the Mafia from Sicily. The Sicilian Mafia was less active during the era of Fascist Italy and it was fought by Benito Mussolini’s government. In June 1924, Mussolini instructed Cesare Mori to eradicate the Mafia from Sicily and on October 25, 1925, appointed Mori prefect of the Sicilian capital, Palermo. In 1924, Mussolini initiated a campaign to destroy[…]

The Fall of Mussolini

By Dr. Christopher DugganHistorian The announcement on the radio later that evening that the ‘Duce’ had fallen brought crowds pouring into the streets and piazzas. Joy was mixed with anger. Photographs of Mussolini were tossed from windows; symbols of the fascist party were hacked off buildings; and pavements everywhere were littered with party insignia torn[…]

The Politics of Aesthetics: Mussolini and Fascist Italy

Power has forever been entwined with a symbolic apparatus in charge of representing it. Power has forever been entwined with a symbolic apparatus in charge of representing it.  From Louis the XIV in France to Queen Victoria in England, images and rituals have served to strengthen people’s connections to governing institutions; symbols and rites make[…]

After 100 Years, Mussolini’s Fascist Party Is a Reminder of Freedom’s Fragility

It was 100 years ago this month that Benito Mussolini created the fascist party in Italy. Today, his life offers cautionary lessons for contemporary politics. One hundred years ago, in March 1919, Benito Mussolini created the fascist party in Italy. For more than two decades, when he came to be known as “Il Duce,” or “the leader,”[…]

Looking for the Antichrist: The Nortons and Mussolini in 1932

“Do you intend to reconstitute the Roman Empire?” It was a simple question, but Il Duce did not understand. By Sam Gee The question was posed during a 1932 meeting between the American evangelical missionaries Edith and Ralph Norton and the rising Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, also known as Il Duce (The Leader). The Americans[…]