Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government

The Storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789, by Jean-Pierre Houël / Bibliothèque nationale de France, Wikimedia Commons Starting in the 1600s, European philosophers began debating the question of who should govern a nation. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 09.07.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Starting in the 1600s, European philosophers began debating the question of[…]

Pope Gregory VII vs. Emperor Henry IV: the Assertion of Medieval Papal Authority

Conflicts between the medieval Christian church, led by the Pope, and nations, ruled by kings, occurred throughout the Middle Ages. By James Zoller / 04.27.2014 Conflicts between the medieval Christian church, led by the Pope, and nations, ruled by kings, occurred throughout the Middle Ages. One great clash between a pope and a king took[…]

Exploring the Roman ‘Imperator’

Lucius Aemilius Paullus, acting as imperator, breaking ties of serfdom / Photo by Marco Prins, Louvre Museum, Creative Commons Imperator (“commander”) was a Roman title, awarded to victorious commanders and emperors. The Greek equivalent is strategos autokrator. By Jona Lendering / 08.10.2015 Historian and Founder Livius Onderwijs Iberian Origin? The Roman word imperator simply means[…]