South to Freedom: Slave Routes to Mexico on the Underground Railroad

The Underground Railroad didn’t just head North – also led to Mexico. The Underground Railroad also ran south—not back toward slave-owning states but away from them to Mexico, which began to restrict slavery in the 1820s and finally abolished it in 1829, some thirty-four years before Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation. This may be history, but[…]

The Anti-Slavery Movement in Chicago and Illinois, 1830-1850

How did the abolitionist movement evolve and respond to national events that shook the nation in the 1850s? Originally published by Newberry Digital Collections for the Classroom, 08.31.2017, Newberry Library, republished with permission for educational, non-commercial purposes. Introduction Illinois was never a slave state, but there were struggles within the state between pro-slavery and anti-slavery[…]

Mapping the Republic of Letters in the 18th Century

Using modern technology to understand a network of eighteenth-century thinkers. Introduction In 1734, Voltaire fled Paris to the region of Champagne, trading the sophisticated and malodorous capital for acres of precisely plotted vineyards. Once again, the sharp-tongued philosopher had run afoul of French censors. Eight years earlier, he’d escaped to England after the Duc de[…]

Financial Intermediation in the Early Roman Empire

Evaluating the effectiveness of financial markets in the early Roman Empire. Abstract Here I use a theoretical hierarchy of financial sources to evaluate the effectiveness of financial markets in the early Roman Empire. I first review the theory of financial intermediation to describe the hierarchy of financial sources and survey briefly the history of financial[…]

Trade in Ancient Greece

The earliest written sources of Homer and Hesiod attest to the existence of trade (emporia) and merchants (emporoi) from the 8th century BCE. Introduction Trade was a fundamental aspect of the ancient Greek world and following territorial expansion, an increase in population movements, and innovations in transport, goods could be bought, sold, and exchanged in[…]

3 Tips for Dealing with Financial Stress Effectively

If you’re stressed about money, rest assured you are far from alone. In fact, a recent survey from Northwestern Mutual identified money as the leading source of stress in America — with 44 percent of respondents attributing their anxieties first and foremost to finances. To put this figure in perspective, consider the fact that significantly[…]

The 7 Ways to Make Money With Property Investing

Most people understand that it’s possible to make money with smart property investments, but they may not know that there are many different ways to make money—and you can choose to optimize for any number of them. Different real estate investors rely on different approaches; for some, it’s better to optimize for a stable, consistent[…]