Subversives in the City: Responses to Radical Politics in Chicago, 1886-1958

From the 1880s through the 1960s, Chicagoans engaged in a passionate debate over how government should respond to political radicalism. Introduction The city of Chicago provided a crucial battleground for a national struggle over the meaning of political radicalism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The term political radicalism refers to individuals and[…]

The Late Governor Goebel: Election Disputes and Guns in 19th-Centuy Kentucky

Families were deeply divided after the Civil War and Kentucky was the most violent state in the Union. In the last days of the nineteenth century, Kentucky was the most violent state in the union. New York reported a few more murders, but that’s mainly because in some parts of Kentucky such records were not[…]

Yggdrasil: The Sacred Ash Tree of Norse Mythology

Yggdrasil stands at the absolute center of the Norse cosmos. This article, Yggdrasil: The Sacred Ash Tree of Norse Mythology, was originally published in The Public Domain Review under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0. If you wish to reuse it please see: With its branches in the heavens and its roots in the underworld, the Cosmic[…]

Climate Effects on Human Evolution and Technology

Key human adaptations evolved in response to environmental instability. Climate Fluctuation Paleoanthropologists – scientists who study human evolution – have proposed a variety of ideas about how environmental conditions may have stimulated important developments in human origins.  Diverse species have emerged over the course of human evolution, and a suite of adaptations have accumulated over[…]

Neanderthals, String, and Sophisticated Tools

There is growing evidence that our closest extinct human relative wasn’t as dumb as scientists had long assumed. Tiny bits of twisted plant fibers found on an ancient stone tool suggest that Neanderthals were able to make and use sophisticated cords like string and rope. Cords made from twisted fibers are so ubiquitous today that[…]