Growing Old in Ancient Rome

The old were often portrayed as avaricious, cowardly, quarrelsome and irritable, and they always complained about the younger generation. By Dr. Karen CokayneUniversity of Reading Old age is a topical subject in today’s society. At present, the aged (those over 60 for women and 65 for men) comprise approximately 20% of the total population and[…]

The ‘Four Temperaments’ in Ancient and Medieval Medicine

The Greek physician Hippocrates (460–370 BCE) who developed it into a medical theory. Introduction The four temperament theory is a proto-psychological theory which suggests that there are four fundamental personality types: sanguine, choleric, melancholic, and phlegmatic.[2][3] Most formulations include the possibility of mixtures among the types where an individual’s personality types overlap and they share[…]

The Boetian War: Ancient Thebes Revolts against Sparta, 378 BCE

The Spartan Eurypontid king Agesilaus led two expeditions against Thebes but achieved little. Introduction and Background The Boeotian or Theban War broke out in 378 BCE as the result of a revolt in Thebes against Sparta. The war saw Thebes become dominant in the Greek World at the expense of Sparta. However by the end[…]

Overthrowing Oligarchy in the Athenian Revolution of 508-507 BCE

Athens had the largest and wealthiest city-state, but they also had a larger class of people excluded from political life by the nobility. Introduction and Background The Athenian Revolution (508–507 BCE) was a revolt by the people of Athens that overthrew the ruling aristocratic oligarchy, establishing the almost century-long self-governance of Athens in the form[…]

Who Would China Prefer in the White House – Biden or Trump?

While China is trying to find ways to become the dominant superpower around the world, Donald Trump’s re-election would likely prove favorable for China’s growth. Trump has been consistently enraged with China following the spread of the virus and the resultant pandemic. He has consistently blamed the Chinese authorities, to an extent where the novel[…]

8 Reasons CBD Oil Is Recommended for Sleep

Cannabidiol, or CBD, is the most common ingredient in marijuana or cannabis. It has thousands of benefits such as relieving pain and anxiety, promotes heart health, and even reduces acne. There are tons of other benefits in general that make CBD an excellent substance to take to promote overall health and the ability to live[…]