America’s Founders Believed Civil Education and Historical Knowledge Would Prevent Tyranny

The U.S. founders believed education would be crucial to maintaining our republic. Introduction The majority of Americans today are anxious; they believe their democracy is under threat. In fact, democracies deteriorate easily. As was feared since the times of Greek philosopher Plato, they may suddenly succumb to mob rule. The people will think they have an inalienable right[…]

Malta in the 19th Century

The island of Malta is situated in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Italy. It comprises three islands: Malta, Comino, and Gozo, of which Malta is the biggest island. Malta is a popular tourist destination that is well known for its breath-taking landscapes and warm climate. However, Malta hasn’t always been a popular tourist resort. In[…]

Which Banking Methods Can You Use in Hungarian Online Casinos?

The online casino market in Hungary has grown with every passing year as gaming operators come out with more lucrative bonuses and promotions to attract new players and keep them loyal to the brand. Hungary-friendly online casinos have also worked hard over the years to increase the number of banking options they provide to their[…]

Past and Present: Is America Headed for a Scopes Moment over Critical Race Theory?

A century ago a similar right-wing outrage campaign was launched against the teaching of evolution in public schools. In a recent debate over a law to ban the teaching of Critical Race Theory, Tennessee legislator Justin Lafferty (R) explained to his colleagues that the 3/5th Compromise of 1787, used to determine a state’s representation in[…]

The History of Systemic Racism That Opponents of Critical Race Theory Prefer to Hide

The foundation of America, and of systemic racism, happened at the same time and from the same consciously created laws. Critical Race Theory (CRT) has become a lightning rod for conservative ire at any discussion of racism, anti-racism, or the non-white history of America. Across the country, bills in Republican-controlled legislatures have attempted to prevent[…]

Critical Race Theory: What It Is and What It Isn’t

A scholar of race and racism explains what critical race theory is – and how many people get it wrong. Introduction U.S. Rep. Jim Banks of Indiana sent a letter to fellow Republicans on June 24, 2021, stating: “As Republicans, we reject the racial essentialism that critical race theory teaches … that our institutions are racist and[…]

Featured Scholar: Kimberlé W. Crenshaw and Critical Race Theory

Crenshaw is known for her work on intersectionality – how overlapping or intersecting social identities relate to systems and structures of oppression. Curated/Reviewed by Matthew A. McIntoshPublic HistorianBrewminate Introduction Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw is Isidor and Seville Sulzbacher Professor of Law at Columbia University. This introduction is taken from her profile page at the institution. Crenshaw[…]

Critical Race Theory: History, Themes, and Debate

The basic tenets of CRT include that racism and disparate racial outcomes are the result of complex, changing and often subtle social and institutional dynamics. Curated/Reviewed by Matthew A. McIntoshPublic HistorianBrewminate Introduction Critical race theory (CRT) is a body of legal scholarship and an academic movement of civil-rights scholars and activists in the United States that seeks to[…]

Sipping the Feels: The Mystery of Authenticity – Who Are We, Really?

Authenticity is the true self – the honest, clear-perspective self. By Lee McCormickCo-author, Spirit Recovery Medicine Bag I’ve been around a while, 58 years in fact. As many of us have come to realize, there’s more to living life than what the official story might have us believe. This great maze and matrix of human[…]

Man Made and Natural Architecture at Park Güell in Barcelona

Park Güell stands as a unique testament to the relationship between Antoni Gaudí’s singular architectural style and the extraordinary city that inspired him: Barcelona. By Hannah Rose FeniakDoctoral CandidateInstitute of Fine ArtsNew York University Barcelona’s Celebrated Architect If visitors know one thing about Barcelona before boarding a plane, it is the surname of the city’s[…]

Jab over Java: Coffee Expert Guesses Cheap vs. Expensive Coffee

He explains why a specific coffee costs more and dives into specifics on how each coffee is made. Video presentation by Epicurious In this episode of ‘Price Points’, Epicurious challenges coffee expert Dillon Edwards of Parlor Coffee to guess which coffee is more expensive. Edwards breaks down roasts (dark roast vs light roast), processing, freshness,[…]

‘Greek Style’ Painting in Renaissance Venice

Many painters in Venetian Crete worked in what was called the “Greek style” and thus retained traits that we can identify with earlier Byzantine icons. By Dr. Andrew CasperAssociate Professor of Art HistoryMiami University, Ohio Seven Hundred Icons, Two Styles The Republic of Venice was a maritime republic that incorporated the city of Venice and[…]

Brewminating: Black Coffee – The History, Politics, and Economics of the Bean

A PBS documentary looking at coffee’s history from historical, political, social, and economic angles. Presentation Hosted by Franky Layne “It’s not hard to brew a great cup of coffee,” writes Kelefa Sanneh in a recent New Yorker post on the Melbourne International Coffee Expo. “At least, it shouldn’t be.” He adds that “there’s no such thing as a[…]

A History of Copying as Innovation and Resistance in Art since the Ancient World

All artists are influenced by the styles and media of others, even those who stridently claim otherwise. By Dr. Asa Simon MIttmanProfessor of Art and Art HistoryCalifornia State University, Chico Introduction Early Greek art influences later Greek art. Early Chinese painting influences later Chinese painting. We will look at some straightforward examples of these sorts of[…]

Old-Fashioned Homewares From the 80s That are Making a Comeback

Nostalgia has made a mark in interior design and Australian home décor is seeing a great revival in old-fashioned homeware. The era in prominence is the 80s and décor highlights from the said decade are witnessing a classy comeback. The bold shapes, geometric patterns, and a whole lot of natural finishes can make a hot[…]

History and Situations of Black Lawyers in the 1980s

Throughout history, Blacks have had to overcome adversity on many levels. The obstacles in the 1980s posed as much difficulty as the challenges of the civil rights movement in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. Black attorneys had to fight for every inch of ground gained in the courts and keep it close.  Battle of the[…]

The Women of Athena’s Ancient Cult

The cult of Athena allowed women to fully participate in the life of the city from the time they were young girls. By Dr. Joshua J. MarkProfessor of PhilosophyMarist College Introduction In ancient Athens, women had no life outside the home unless they were prostitutes or were engaged in religious activities such as festivals. Every Greek deity in every city-state had their[…]

Pherenike, the Female Olympic Trainer in Ancient Greece

She dressed as a man to coach her son. After she was caught, all trainers had to enter the stadium naked to prove they were males. By Dr. Joshua J. MarkProfessor of PhilosophyMarist College Introduction Pherenike (l. c. 388 BCE, also known as Kallipateira) was an athlete from Rhodes who, because she was a woman, could not[…]

Hipparchia the Cynic: Wife, Mother, and Outspoken Ancient Greek Philosopher

Hipparchia turned the ancient Greek paradigm of women being homebound and serving men upside down. Introduction Cynic philosopher, wife of Crates of Thebes (l. c. 360 – 280 BCE), and mother of his children, Hipparchia of Maroneia (l. c. 350 – 280 BCE) defied social norms in order to live her beliefs. She is all the more impressive in[…]

Amazonomachy: A Nation of Women Warriors in Ancient Greek Mythology

Amazonomachy represents the Greek ideal of civilization. Curated/Reviewed by Matthew A. McIntoshPublic HistorianBrewminate Introduction In Greek mythology, Amazonomachy (English translation: “Amazon battle”; plural, Amazonomachiai) was one of various mythical battles between the ancient Greeks and the Amazons, a nation of all-female warriors. Many of the myths portrayed were that of Heracles’ ninth labor, which was the retrieval of the girdle of Hippolyta, Queen of the[…]

Common Ground: Community-Based Tourism and Indigenous Cultures

Sustaining indigenous communities while experiencing another culture and another way of being. By David TuckerTour Guide in Ecuador Introduction The Achuar in the Ecuadorian Amazon invite small groups of visitors into a cultural immersion of their land and traditions so as to inspire a shift in the modern world’s habit of consumption that drives the[…]

Cultural Appropriation: What It Is and How It Differs from Cultural Appreciation

Guidance on when it is sharing another culture out of appreciation and when it is appropriation. By Dr. Joshua E. KaneLecturer in Social ScienceArizona State University Introduction Fashion companies are increasingly being taken to task for selling expensive versions of traditional Indigenous dress. Gucci’s kaftans came with a US$3,500 price tag, which is far more than[…]

Ground Zero: Tourism and Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions

How the recent growth of global tourism has impacted greenhouse gas emissions. By Daisy DunneScience WriterCarbonBrief Introduction Worldwide tourism accounted for 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions from 2009 to 2013, new research finds, making the sector a bigger polluter than the construction industry. The study, which looks at the spending habits of travellers in[…]

The Grand Tour: Tourism and Cultural Appropriation in Early Modern Europe

The advent of popular guide did much to popularize these trips and the elite considered travel to such centers as necessary rites of passage. Curated/Reviewed by Matthew A. McIntoshPublic HistorianBrewminate Introduction The Grand Tour was the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip through Europe undertaken by upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank (typically accompanied by a chaperone,[…]

Over Hill, Over Dale: Travel in Classical Antiquity

The first instances of long-distance travel in the broader Mediterranean world occurred in what are today Egypt and Iraq. Curated/Reviewed by Matthew A. McIntoshPublic HistorianBrewminate Introduction Travel in classical antiquity over long distances was a specialised undertaking. Most travel was done in the interest of warfare, diplomacy, general state building, or trade. Social motivations for travel[…]