An Outline of Roman Civil Procedure

The Romans resolved civil disputes by recourse to litigation based on law. Abstract This is a broad discussion of the key feature of Roman civil procedure, including sources, lawmaking, and rules. It covers the three principal models for procedure; special proceedings; appeals; magistrates; judges; and representation. It takes ac-count of new evidence on procedure discovered[…]

The Legal Profession in the Ancient Roman Republic

The grandeur that was Rome was actually the grandeur of Roman Law. I In ancient Greece or, to be more exact, in ancient Athens the general socio-political situation was distinctly inimical to the development of a true legal profession.[1] The sovereign and democratic people of Athens, at least during the second half of the fifth[…]

Revolution in the Divided City: The Struggle of the Orders in Ancient Rome

It was a full scale political revolution carried out by less advantaged Romans that redefined the Roman government for centuries to come. By Christopher Schley SaladinAugustana College Abstract This paper examines the formation of the plebeian movement and government in the Roman Republic during the 5thCentury BC of the Struggle of the Orders. The Struggle[…]

Sulla: Last Dictator before Julius Caesar and the End of the Roman Republic

He set the stage for Julius Caesar to later seize political power through force and end Republican Rome. Introduction Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix[2,3,4] 138–78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman and one of the canonical figures of Roman history. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice,[…]

Lucius Cincinnatus: Twice Dictator in the Early Roman Republic

Cincinnatus was a conservative opponent of the rights of the plebeians (the common citizens) who fell into poverty himself. Introduction Lucius Quinctius[1] (or Quintius)[2] Cincinnatus (c. 519 – c. 430 BC)[2][3] was a Roman patrician, statesman, and military leader of the early Roman Republic who became a legendary figure of Roman virtue—particularly civic virtue—by the time of the[…]

Patriotism and Nationalism in the Ancient Roman Character

The Law, not the State, was the citadel of Roman sovereignty. I Others shall beat out the breathing bronze to softer it well; shall draw living lineaments from the marble; the cause shall be more eloquent on their lips; their pencil shall portray the pathways of heaven, and tell the stars in their arising: be[…]

Ten Noble and Notorious Women of Ancient Greece

Many women in ancient Greece led interesting lives and performed heroic acts and who remain lesser known in the modern day. Introduction There were, no doubt, many notable women in ancient Greece, but history books are usually silent on female accomplishments. According to the historian and novelist Helena P. Schrader, this is because, “Herodotus and[…]

The Five Gifts of Hathor: Ancient Egyptian Goddess of Fertility and Motherhood

Hathor was a multifaceted goddess, appealed to for a wide variety of needs, who provided many of the best aspects of life to humanity. Introduction The central cultural value of ancient Egypt was ma’at – harmony and balance – which maintained the order of the universe and the lives of the people. Keeping balance in one’s[…]

Tiamat: Ancient Mesopotamian Mother Goddess

The author of Enuma Elish drew on the earlier Sumerian goddesses, Nammu and Inanna, to create the goddess of chaos. Introduction Tiamat is the Mesopotamian goddess associated with primordial chaos and the salt sea best known from the Babylonian epic Enuma Elish. In all versions of the myth, following the original, Tiamat always symbolizes the[…]

The Last Tyrants of Ancient Athens

Economic crisis, impoverishment, and elite conflict led Athens to be managed by individual rulers, the last tyrants of Athens. Introduction The period of the first decades of the Ist Century BC was certainly one of the most conflictive and notable moments in the history of ancient Athens. Thus, since the excellent prosperity gained as a[…]

An Ill-Defined Rule: Cassander’s Consolidation of Power in Ancient Macedonia

Cassander embarked on an ambitious plan to control the region and solidify his power in Macedonia. Cassander’s implementation of power during the early stages of his rule of Macedonia was wide ranging and multifaceted. He employed numerous different strategies to gain support from a variety of influential groups within the Macedonian homeland and adjacent areas[…]

Neanderthals, String, and Sophisticated Tools

There is growing evidence that our closest extinct human relative wasn’t as dumb as scientists had long assumed. Tiny bits of twisted plant fibers found on an ancient stone tool suggest that Neanderthals were able to make and use sophisticated cords like string and rope. Cords made from twisted fibers are so ubiquitous today that[…]

Imperial Examinations (Keju) for Government Service in Ancient China

The Chinese civil service system later served as a model for the civil-service systems elsewhere. Introduction The Imperial examinations or Keju (Traditional Chinese: 科舉; pinyin: kējǔ), were an essential part of the Chinese government administration from their introduction in the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.) until they were abolished during Qing attempts at[…]

A History of Science and Technology in China since the Ancient Han Dynasty

Among the earliest inventions were the abacus, the “shadow clock,” and the first flying machines. Introduction The history of science and technology in China is both long and rich with science and technological contribution. In antiquity, independent of Greek philosophers and other civilizations, ancient Chinese philosophers made significant advances in science, technology, mathematics, and astronomy.[…]

The History, Culture, and Religion of the Celts

Little is known about their lifestyle due to the numerous conflicts and combinations of cultures that occurred in European history. Introduction The term Celt, normally pronounced /kɛlt/ now refers primarily to a member of any of a number of peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages, which form a branch of the Indo-European languages. It[…]

An Overview of the Origins of Stonehenge

It was built in five constructional stages spanning a period from around 3000 to 1500 BCE. Stonehenge represents one of Britain’s most important and enigmatic archaeological sites. Beginning in Neolithic times and modified during the Bronze Age it currently comprises a number of incomplete stone circles and stone horseshoes, built in five constructional stages spanning[…]

The Jewish Roman World of Early Christianity

In 63 B.C.E. Pompey was invited to settle a dispute between two Maccabeans. Thus came the Romans. By Dr. Dennis C. DulingProfessor Emeritus of Religious StudiesNiagara University Introduction “Judaism” in the time of Jesus is more properly designated “Judaisms” as it can include a rich variety of forms and practices that flourished during late Second[…]

The Sanctuary at Ancient Keros: Materiality and Monumentality

A place for the perform­ance of rituals of congregation. Abstract The discovery of the early bronze age sanctuary on the Cycladic island of Keros is briefly described. Why islanders in the Aegean should establish the world’s first maritime sanctuary around 2500 bc is then considered, and other instances of early centres of congregation are briefly[…]

Caesar Hath the Falling Sickness: Disability in Shakespearean Drama

What if we understand the play as a story about the disabled body as it was configured in the early modern cultural imagination? Abstract This essay investigates William Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of Julius Caesar as a disability narrative. In doing so, it reveals that “disabled” was an operational identity category in the early modern period[…]

Mark Antony: Popular Tribune to Fallen Consul

Antony was popular as a tribune and sought vengeance for Caesar before joining Cleopatra and falling out of favor with the people. Introduction Marcus Antonius (l. 83-30 BCE, known popularly as Mark Antony) was a Roman general and statesman best known for his love affair with Cleopatra VII (l. c.69-30 BCE) of Egypt. As Julius Caesar’s[…]

Lucius Aurelius Commodus: A Supersized Ego and the End of the Pax Romana

His reign is commonly considered to mark the end of the golden period in the history of the Roman Empire known as the Pax Romana. Introduction Commodus (/ˈkɒmədəs/;[1] 31 August 161 – 31 December 192), born Lucius Aurelius Commodus[2] and died Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, was Roman emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177[…]

Virgil’s ‘Aeneid’ as Augustan Totalitarian Propaganda in Ancient Rome

The Aeneid was written to praise Augustus by drawing parallels between him and the protagonist, Aeneas. Introduction The Aeneid has been analyzed by scholars of several different generations and schools of thought to try to determine the political commentary that Virgil had hoped to portray. The major schools of thought include the overarching idea that[…]

Coronation of the Diadochi: Monarchic Division after Alexander the Great

The Hellenistic world which had had no monarch for half a decade after Alexander suddenly had a plethora of them. The year 310 B.C. witnessed the extinction of the Argead line. Cassander had ordered the murder of Young Alexander IV and his mother Roxane, widow of Alexander the Great. The kingdom of Macedonia was now[…]

The Glory of Ancient Persia in the Behistun Inscription of King Darius

The text of the inscription is a statement by Darius I of Persia, written three times in three different scripts and languages. Introduction The Behistun Inscription is to cuneiform what the Rosetta Stone is to Egyptian hieroglyphs: The document most crucial in the deciphering of a previously lost script. It is located in the Kermanshah[…]

The Hittite Empire, 1680-1180 BCE

The Hittite civilization was one of the cradles of human culture. Introduction “Hittites” is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (the modern village of Boğazköy in north-central Turkey), through most of the second millennium B.C.E. The Hittite kingdom, which at its[…]

The Horatius Trial in Ancient Rome: Killing a Sister for Mourning a Fallen Enemy

Sentenced to death but acquitted in a public trial based upon his father’s appeal. The Story According to Livy, Rome and another Latin city, Alba Longa, came into conflict in what would amount to a battle for hegemony over the Latin-speaking part of Italy. So as not to exhaust either army, which would have left[…]

Kings of the Ancient Persian Achaemenid Empire

The early Achaemenid kings may or may not have been adherents of Zoroastrianism but that religion would inform the Persian culture. Introduction The Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) was the first great Persian political entity in Western and Central Asia which stretched, at its peak, from Asia Minor to the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia through[…]

Humans Domesticated Horses – New Archaeological Tech Answering Where and When

Archaeologists have long argued over when and how people first domesticated horses. Introduction In the increasingly urbanized world, few people still ride horses for reasons beyond sport or leisure. However, on horseback, people, goods and ideas moved across vast distances, shaping the power structures and social systems of the premechanized era. From the trade routes[…]

Early Medieval Chinese Presence in the Nubian and Abyssinian Kingdoms

Examining the visit of Du Huan to Molin-guo and Laobosa. Abstract This article focuses on the first Chinese whose presence in Africa is clearly documented. Due to the geographical curiosity of the T’ang dynasty, extracts of an 8th century travel report of a Chinese military officer, Du Huan, were documented and preserved. He visited Arabian[…]