Elections in the Middle Ages

Kneeling emperor taking oath before bishop (Scene, Liturgical: Coronation, Oath). (Italy, early 14c.). Princeton University Library, Princeton 7, fol. 28r The governing offices of medieval church and state were often filled by election. By Jessica Savage / 11.08.2016 Art History Specialist Princeton University The governing offices of medieval church and state – such as emperor,[…]

Not Just Ancient Greece: Exploring the Medieval Roots of Modern Democracy

Alnwick Castle / Photo by James*C, Creative Commons The notion that modern democracy has medieval roots was forcefully formulated by the Prussian historian Otto Hintze. By Dr. Jørgen Møller / 08.17.2015 Professor of Political Science Aarhus University Madame de Staël famously observed that in France liberty is ancient and despotism is modern. The sentiment behind[…]

An Overview of the History, Theory, and Practice of Socialism

Socialists in Union Square, New York City, May 1, 1912 / Library of Congress, Wikimedia Commons Socialism has a very long history. The earliest recorded socialist society is described in the Book of Acts in the Bible. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 08.10.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Introduction Socialism has a very long history. The[…]

Of Gods and Emperors: Trans Experiences in Ancient Rome

The Roses of Heliogabalus (1888), Lawrence Alma-Tadema. (Wikimedia Commons) Ancient Rome featured a myriad of, what could be understood, both then and now, as experiences that transcended sex and gender norms. By GVGK Tang / 11.14.2017 The ancient Roman satirist Lucian describes an exchange between two courtesans, wherein one of the women repeatedly characterizes her[…]