European Science in the Middle Ages

Roman and early medieval scientific texts were read and studied, contributing to the understanding of nature in the light of reason. Introduction European science in the Middle Ages comprised the study of nature, mathematics and natural philosophy in medieval Europe. Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the decline in knowledge of Greek,[…]

An Introduction to Medieval Europe

Characterizing the Middle Ages as a period of darkness is misleading. Introduction So much of what the average person knows, or thinks they know, about the Middle Ages comes from film and tv. When I polled a group of well-educated friends on Facebook, they told me that the word “medieval” called to mind Monty Python[…]

People and Technology in Prehistoric Europe

During the Iron Age, Central, Western and most of Eastern Europe gradually entered the historical period. Introduction Prehistoric Europe is Europe with human presence but before the start of recorded history, beginning in the Lower Paleolithic.[3] As history progresses, considerable regional irregularities of cultural development emerge and increase. The region of the eastern Mediterranean is,[…]

Three Medieval Monarchs and Transparent Rule

Monarchs and prime ministers have spent centuries working out which decisions need to be made in public. Introduction When the English parliamentary system emerged, it was built on a cherished principle: rulers had to take advice from a representative body of subjects before making a major decision, and whether they followed that advice or not,[…]

The Rise of New Monarchies in Late Medieval Europe

Monarchs were demolishing the medieval feudal political system and building strong central government in its place. Introduction Between 1450 and 1550, Renaissance humanism reshaped European education, literature, the arts, music, and political theory. It also exposed corruption and fallacies within the Roman Catholic Church. It was a profound rejection of medieval scholasticism and traditional practices.[…]

Causes and Impacts of the European Age of Exploration

A time when Europe was swept up in the Renaissance and the Reformation, other major changes were taking place in the world. Introduction With today’s global positioning satellites, Internet maps, cell phones, and superfast travel, it is hard to imagine exactly how it might have felt to embark on a voyage across an unknown ocean.[…]

Understanding Borders and ‘East Central Europe’ in the 19th and 20th Centuries

A narrower concept of “East Central Europe” remains the dominant one in the German-speaking countries. By Dr. Joachim von Puttkamer / 11.11.2015 Professor of Eastern European History Aleksander Brückner Center for Polish Studies Introduction “Central and Eastern Europe” or “East Central Europe” in its usual sense encompasses the countries of Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and[…]

Europe before 1914 and the ‘Great War’

Original designs for battleship HMS Dreadnought, produced by the British Royal Navy in 1905 / British Library, Public Domain Considering factors such as globalization and military advancement and examining the political and diplomatic landscape of Europe before the outbreak of World War One. By Dr. David Stevenson / 01.29.2014 Stevenson Professor of International History The[…]

Monuments of the Neolithic European Landscapes

Silbury Hill Neolithic mound. It stands 30 metres high and 160 metres wide, and comprises half a million tonnes of chalk. It is non-megalithic, but still a huge accomplishment. Copyright © Stu Smith 2013 – Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0). Cropped In the Neolithic there were no maps. However, most times people[…]

Prehistory and the Neolithic Age in Europe

Cereal in West Kennet (Wiltshire, United Kingdom). Copyright © Victor Jimenez Jaimez 2014 – Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) The emergence, adaptation, growth, and spread of new technology and social orders.   By Dr. Víctor Jiménez Jáimez (left) and Dr. David W. Wheatley (right) Jáimez: Marie Curie IEF Post-Doctoral Researcher in Archaeology[…]

Trading between Muslims and the Sámi in Medieval Norway

Nordic Sámi (Saami) people in Sapmi (Lapland) in front of two Lavvo Tents / Photo by Granbergs Nya Aktiebolag, Wikimedia Commons Examining the interrelationship of trading, religious missions, and Crusading based mainly on Scandinavian sagas and chronicles. By Dr. Bjørn Bandlien Professor of Viking Age and Medieval History and Historiography Universitetet i Sørøst-Norge Introduction In[…]

The Ancient and Early Medieval Germanic Tribes

Arms and armors of a typical noble Frankish warrior, 5th-6th century / Photo by Altaipanther, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Wikimedia Commons The Germanic tribes, an ancient nomadic civilization, used their superior military strength to lay the foundation for modern Europe. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 08.08.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Introduction Origins The Germanic peoples (also called[…]

The Religious Wars of Europe, 1524-1648

Battle of Rocroi, 1643, attributed to Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau / Wikimedia Commons During the period of 1524 until 1648, Europe was plagued by wars of religion. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 07.29.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief During the period of 1524 until 1648, Europe was plagued by wars of religion. It is important to recognize, however, that[…]

Early Modern European Settler Colonies

Portuguese Fort Aguada, Goa, India / Photo by Abhijit Nandi, Creative Commons Beginning in the early modern age, European settler colonies were founded first beyond the Atlantic Ocean and later in the Pacific, but not in Asia. By Dr. Christoph Marx / 06.06.2017 Professor of History Universität Duisburg-Essen Introduction Beginning in the early modern age, European settler[…]

European Fashion and Cultural Transfer, 1450-1950

Hendrick Avercamp’s ‘Ice Scene’ (c. 1610). Wikimedia Commons The function of fashion as a form of cultural transfer in Europe-wide social processes between 1450 and 1950. By Dr. Gabriele Mentges / 06.03.2011 Professor of the Cultural History of Clothing/Fashion/Textiles Institute for Arts and Material Culture Technische Universität Dortmunt Introduction This article discusses the function of fashion as a[…]

European Perceptions of America since the 17th Century

1750 map of America / museumoutlets.com By Dr. Marcus Gräser / 02.08.2011 Professor of History Institut für Neuere Geschichte und Zeitgeschichte Johannes Kepler University Abstract Early on, the USA – “America” – became a point of reference within European consciousnesses against which European societies could analyse themselves. At the same time, America acted as a repository[…]

Ancient DNA Reveals How Europeans Developed Light Skin and Lactose Intolerance

Slurp and thank the Yamnaya. Samantha Jade Royds/Flickr, CC BY-SA Shedding light on how have traits that were rare in African ancestors became common in Europe. By Dr. Daniel Zadik / 07.10.2015 Postdoctoral Researcher in Genetics University of Leicester Food intolerance is often dismissed as a modern invention and a “first-world problem”. However, a study analysing the genomes of 101 Bronze-Age Eurasians reveals[…]

Ancient DNA Sheds Light on the Origin of Europeans

Ancient DNA can tell you a lot more than skull shape about the origins of the first Europeans. Flickr/Sebastian Dooris , CC BY Capturing ancient genomes gives us valuable information.    By Dr. David Lambert (left) and Dr. Micheal Westaway (right) / 11.15.2014 Lambert: Dean Research Griffith Sciences and Professor of Evolutionary Biology Westaway: Senior Research Fellow Griffith University Much[…]

Visions of Paradise: Illuminated Manuscripts and Infinite Gems from Medieval India and Europe

Krishna Uprooting the Parijata Tree from a Bhagavata Purana manuscript, 1525–50, made in Delhi region or Rajasthan, India. Opaque watercolor and ink on paper, 7 1/4 × 9 1/2 in. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, from the Nasli and Alice Heeramaneck Collection, Museum Associates Purchase, M.72.1.26. Photo © Museum Associates/LACMA Luxury objects from Europe, the Middle East,[…]

Russification-Sovietization in East-Central Europe after 1917

Soviet leaders Red Square, Moscow, USSR celebrating the second anniversary of the October Revolution / Photo by L.Y. Leonidov, Wikimedia Commons By Dr. Theodore R. Weeks / 12.03.2010 Professor of History Southern Illinois University Abstract Under tsarist and Soviet rule respectively, russification and sovietization were intended to ensure state control over a diverse population. The Russian[…]

The Americas, Europe, and Africa before 1492

Overview of Pueblo Bonito / Photo by John Wiley, Wikimedia Commons By Dr. P. Scott Corbett, et.al.  Professor of History Ventura College Introduction In Europe supported by Africa and America (1796), artist William Blake, who was an abolitionist, depicts the interdependence of the three continents in the Atlantic World; however, he places gold armbands on the[…]

The Ottoman History of South-East Europe

Armenians marched by Ottoman soldiers / Wikimedia Commons By Dr. Markus Koller / 01.10.2012 Professor of History Ruhr-Universität Bochum Introduction The era of Ottoman Rule, which began in the fourteenth century, is among the most controversial chapters of South-East European history. Over several stages of conquest, some of them several decades long, large parts of[…]

European Influence of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars

“We should make sure that the revolution is transmitted!” / CC-BY-NC 2.0 doc(q)man By Dr. Frederick C. Schneid / 01.27.2011 Herman and Louise Smith Professor of History High Point University Abstract The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars represented continuity in European diplomacy from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century, but witnessed considerable change in the way that[…]

Birth of Levée en Masse in 1793 France and Its European Development

Departure of the Conscripts in 1807, by Louis-Léopold Boilly, 1808 / Musée Carnavalet via Wikimedia Commons By Dr. Ambrogio Caiani / 12.03.2010 Senior Lecturer in History University of Kent Introduction When faced, in 1793, with the prospect of defeat, the National Convention issued an appeal for a levée en masse, which, theoretically, placed the entire population at[…]

Chambers of Art and Wonders in Early Modern Europe

The Archduke Leopold Wilhelm in His Gallery at Brussels, by David Teniers the Younger (1610-1690) 1651. / Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna As collection rooms based on a universalist approach to art and artifacts, the chambers of art and wonders (Wunderkammern) were characteristic of the pre-modern era. By Gabriele Beßler / 07.16.2015 Art Historian Abstract As collection[…]

European Encounters in the Age of Expansion

German Emperor Wilhelm II (1859–1941), centre, visiting a group of Ethiopians at Hagenbeck’s Tierpark in Hamburg in 1909 / Wikimedia Commons By Dr. Guida Abbattista / 01.24.2011 Professor of Modern History University of Trieste Abstract This article reconstructs the expansion of Europe overseas and the multiple forms of encounters between European navigators, explorers, conquerors, colonizers, merchants and[…]

Technology in Early Modern Europe

By Dr. Marcus Popplow / 07.06.2017 Professor of the History of Technical-Scientific Civilization Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) Die Forschungsuniversität in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Introduction In debates surrounding Europe’s shared history, the role of technology is hardly addressed. As a contributing factor, it appears too far removed from political or cultural processes of integration. At the same[…]