The End of China’s Canton Trade System

Despite their common interests, relations between the foreigners and the Chinese community grew more tense during the early 19th century. Despite their common interests, relations between the foreigners and the Chinese community grew more tense during the early 19th century. The increasing amount of trade and larger number of ships inevitably brought more conflict. The[…]

The Canton Trade System in China in the 18th and 19th Centuries

Canton’s foreign quarter, sited between the city wall and the river, fit comfortably into the classic design of south Chinese cities. Canton Trade Introduction During the passage from Macau up the Pearl River foreigners passed through densely populated agricultural lands and market towns, but they never saw a major city until they reached Guangzhou. We[…]

Economic Relations Between Europe and the World in the Medieval and Early Modern Eras

A vivid picture of the emergence of the global market and the beginnings of global competition. Introduction This article sketches the beginnings and central trends in the development of economic ties between Europe and regions outside Europe from 1450 to 1950. The focus is on the increasing diversity and volume of goods exchanged, and the[…]

Transport, Tourism, and Technology in Portugal in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries

Examining historic economic links with Portugal and its relationships abroad. By Dr. Ana Cardoso de Matos (left), Dr. Maria Ana Bernardo (right), and Dr. Maria Luísa F.N. dos Santos (not pictured)Professors of HistoryUniversidade de Évora Tourism and Transport: Interconnected Journeys In recent years[1], tourism has experienced increasing interest from researchers in various areas, a fact[…]

The Medieval Law Merchant: The Tyranny of a Construct

Medieval commerce had little space for a specialized law, and merchants had little need for it. Abstract The story of a medieval law merchant has a strong hold on scholars interested in private ordering. Despite numerous historical works demonstrating the falsity of the myth, it continues to be discussed regularly in scholarship as if it[…]