Anthropologists Link Human Uniqueness to Hunter-Gatherer Group Structure

Photography of Lascaux animal painting / Wikimedia Commons One of the most complex human mysteries involves how and why we became an outlier species in terms of biological success. By Rebecca Howe Research findings published in the March 11 edition of the journal Science by an international team of noted anthropologists, including several from Arizona[…]

Early Hunter-Gatherer Environmental Modifications for Food

Photo by Arizona State University Hunting and gathering activities were the primary way for humans to feed themselves from their natural environments during over 90% of human history. By Dr. Heather Karsten Associate Professor of Crop Production and Ecology Pennsylvania State University Hunting and gathering activities were the primary way for humans to feed themselves[…]

From Mythology to Psychology: Archaic Psychology in Greek Myths

The Triumph of Civilization / Photo by Grizzli, Kunsthalle Hamburg, Wikimedia Commons The enormous contribution of ancient Greeks to the progress of philosophy, natural sciences and arts, can’t be contested. Unfortunately, the role they played in the history of psychology is hardly mentioned. By Dr. Vlad Petre Glăveanu Associate Professor of Psychology Webster University Geneva[…]

Rome’s Seat of Passion: The Archaeology and History of the Circus Maximus

Wide view of Circus Maximus, Rome, Italy / Photo by Peter Clarke, Wikimedia Commons The Circus Maximus as evidence to both the flexibility of public spaces and usages by the aristocracy from pre-Roman times through the Roman Empire. By Cody Scott Ames / 04.06.2016 Abstract It is a place where the general public can gather[…]

Uruk: The Birth of Architecture and Urban Life

Detail of a relief at Persepolis showing a procession of subject peoples bringing gifts characteristic of their homelands as tribute for the Persian king A great transformation in human life took place in ancient Mesopotamia with the rise of the city of Uruk. By Dr. Margarete Van Ess Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology Deutsches Archäologisches[…]

Solon the Lawgiver: A Constitution of Property

The Aristotelian Constitution of the Athenians / British Library (Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 131), Wikimedia Commons Solon’s new constitution was based on ownership of property. Introduction By the early 6th century B.C. social tensions in Athens had become acute, pitting the poorer citizens against rich and powerful landowners. Many citizens were reduced to the status of share[…]

Justice in Pharaonic Egypt

Detail of sarcophagus lid of Ramesses III / The Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge Justice  was an immensely important concept within ancient pharaonic Egypt, known to them by the word Ma’at. By A.J. van Loon / 12.15.2014 MA Thesis, Ancient History Leiden University Introduction Concerning Egypt, I am going to speak at length, because it[…]

Social and Economic Corruption in the Graeco-Roman World

Highlighting the evolution of corruption and represents the highlights of the phenomenon from the social, economic and religious perspective.     By (left-to-right) Ciprian Rotaru, Dumitru-Alexandru Bodislav, and Raluca Georgescu Bucharest University of Economic Studies Introduction The phenomenon of corruption can be dated with the rise of mankind. Although it is not an act with[…]

Upholding the Moral Good: The Censor in Ancient Rome

Sacrifice scene during a census: left part of a plaque from the Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus known as the “Census frieze”. / Photo by Jastrow, Louvre Museum, Wikimedia Commons “Quis custodiet ipsos custodies? – “Who watches the watchmen?” By Nico P. Swarz and Eric Ozoo Swarz: University of Botswana Ozoo: Baisago University College of Botswana[…]

Jobs in Ancient Egypt

Workers depicted in a mural at the tomb of Menna at Thebes, 18th Dynasty / Photo by Horus3, Flickr, Creative Commons Egypt operated on a barter system up until the Persian invasion of 525 BCE, and the economy was based on agriculture. By Dr. Joshua J. Mark / 05.04.2017 Professor of Philosophy Marist College Introduction[…]

Lucius Cornelius Sulla: Guardian or Enemy of the Roman Republic?

The Entrance of Cornelius Sulla into Rome, where he was appointed as “Dictator” in the First Century BCE /  Wikimedia Commons The truth is complex. By Marc Hyden / 07.27.2015 Historian Introduction For centuries, Lucius Cornelius Sulla has been reviled as a maniacal tyrant who defiled the Roman constitution and instituted bloody purges, but some[…]

The Third Punic War: Carthago Delenda Est!

Antonine baths ruins / Photo by Aymen, Wikimedia Commons The Carthaginian assault on their Numidian neighbours gave the Romans the perfect excuse to crush this troublesome enemy once and for all. By Mark Cartwright / 05.31.2016 Historian Introduction An artist’s impression of what the Roman naval attack on Carthage may have looked like during the[…]

Ancient Carthaginian Society

Brysa Hill ruins / Creative Commons The had an international blend of skills and cultures was a recipe for success. By Mark Cartwright / 06.16.2016 Historian Introduction Phoenician or Carthaginian amulets in the form of bearded heads made of sand-core glass, 4th-3rd century BCE (Cagliari, Museo Archeologico Nazionale) / Photo by Carole Raddato, Flickr, Creative[…]

Rationality and Irrationality in the Ancient Greek Law of Procedure

A representation of Draco at the library of the Supreme Court of the United States / Photo by the Draconian Society, Wikimedia Commons Exploring rational and irrational procedural methods in Greek adjudication in archaic times. By Dr. Gerhard Thür Professor Emeritus of Roman Law Austrian Academy of Sciences Abstract The paper deals with what today[…]

Precipitating a Republic’s End: Cicero and the Catiline Conspiracy

A fresco by Cesare Maccari (1840-1919 CE) depicting Roman senator Cicero (106-43 BCE) denouncing the conspirator Catiline in the Roman senate. (Palazzo Madama, Rome) / Wikimedia Commons One man would rise amidst the disorder of civil war, at least in his mind, to save it. By Donald L. Wasson / 02.03.2016 Professor of Ancient/Medieval History Lincoln[…]

A History of Phoenician Civilization

Phoenician ship Carved on the face of a sarcophagus, 2nd century CE / NMB, Wikimedia Commons Although overshadowed by the legacy of Greece and of Rome, the Phoenicians opened up trade and commerce and communication on a grand scale. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 08.28.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Introduction Phoenicia was an ancient civilization[…]

Cyrus the Great: A New Kind of Ancient Ruler

Wikimedia Commons Through his Cyropaedia, Cyrus’s notions of human rights influenced the U.S. Constitution—Thomas Jefferson owned two copies of this text. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 08.27.2018 Introduction Cyrus (Old Persian Kourosh or Khorvash, modern Persian: کوروش, Kourosh) (ca. 576 – July 529 B.C.E.), also known as Cyrus the Great and Cyrus II of[…]

The Totalitarian Rule and Propaganda of Augustus

Looking to the writings of Duncan Kennedy and Hannah Arendt for further insight. By Dr. Elena Giusti Assistant Professor in Latin Literature and Language University of Warwick Abstract The allegedly old-fashioned debate over the pro- or anti-Augustanism of Augustan texts was superseded in 1992 by Duncan Kennedy’s ‘reflections’ over these terms of reference. Since then,[…]

Ancient Egypt: The King’s Chief Librarian and Guardian of the Royal Archives of Mehit

The Great Sphinx of Giza / Photo by MusikAnimal, Wikimedia Commons An exclusive title held only by the highest officials of the royal Egyptian court going back to at least early dynastic times.     By (left-to-right) Dr. Manu Seyfzadeh, Dr. Robert M. Schoch, and Robert Bauval / 07.21.2017 Seyfzadeh: Independent Researcher Schoch: Associate Professor[…]

Kingship Descends from Heaven: The Urban Revolution Before 4000 BCE

Sumer, in southernmost Mesopotamia, was the first true city in the world, some time not very much before 2100 BCE. By Dr. Paul Kriwaczek British Historian Eridu Leave the modern traffic, the bicycles, the cars and delivery lorries fuming along St Giles’ and Beaumont Street in Oxford, and pass through the Ashmolean Museum’s rather overblown[…]

Synthetic Palaeontology: Reconstructing Ancient Life with Modern Technology

Reconstruction of ancient life and environments is an extremely challenging problem. By Dr. William Irvin Sellers Professor, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences University of Manchester Abstract One of the major goals of palaeontology is the reconstruction of life on earth at specific times in the past. The major pieces of evidence that we can[…]